Last Updated:
24 Jun 2021

The Challenge of Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in Developing Countries

Author: Bill Kingdom, Roland Liemberger, Philippe Marin

One of the major issues affecting water utilities in the developing world is the considerable difference between the amount of water put into the distribution system and the amount of water billed to consumers (also called “non-revenue water” [NRW]). High levels of NRW reflect huge volumes of water being lost through leaks, not being invoiced to customers, or both.In this report, a number of case studies, taken from some of the largest and most recent performance-based NRW contracts, are studied and discussed in terms of their technical and financial performance. Lessons learned from the case studies are analyzed, showing the potential benefits of NRW performance-based service contracting with the private sector.